Feed-in tariffs (FITs) in America

Share

Argentina

SizeIncentiveTerm
Any sizeARS$0.9/kWh15 years

Source:IEA

Canada

Electrical power generation in Canada is under provincial jurisdiction, thus Canada’s provinces each have different incentive schemes. Additionally, some provinces without FITs offer either a Net Billing or Net Metering Program. There are two main differences between Net Billing and Net Metering. Net Billing requires more advanced, higher cost metering and it is capable of differentiating between on-peak and off-peak usage. Net Metering is simpler, with less disincentives to feed into the grid.

Alberta

Alberta has no FIT, but it has a Net Billing program.

Source:Howell-Mayhew Engineering

British Columbia

British Columbia has no FIT, but the Standing Offer Program instead. This is a Net Metering Program using a “BC Clean” energy source verified by BC Hydro.

Source:BC Hydro Net Metering Program

Manitoba

No feed-in tariffs. No Net Metering/Billing Program.

New Brunswick

Net Metering Program through NB Power, but only one solar project thus far.

Source:NB Power

Newfoundland and Labrador

No feed-in tariffs. No Net Metering/Billing Program.

Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories have no FIT and no Net Billing or Net Metering Program available.

Nova Scotia

The Nova Scotia FITs do not cover solar energy production. Net Metering is available with NS Power.

Source:NS Power

Nunavut

Nunavut has no FIT and no Net Metering or Net Billing Program.

Ontario

RooftopBIPV/Ground-mountedTerm
SizeIncentiveSizeIncentive
<10kWCA$0.294/kWh<10kWCA$0.214/kWh20 years
10-100kWCA$0.242/kWh10-500kWCA$0.209/kWh20 years
100-500kWCA$0.225/kWh20 years

The following price adders apply to BIPV and ground-mounted PV projects:

Aboriginal Price Adder 15-50%CA$0.0075/kWh
Aboriginal Price Adder >50%CA$0.015/kWh
Community Project Price Adder 15-50%CA$0.005/kWh
Community Project Price Adder >50%CA$0.010/kWh
Municipal/Public Sector Entity Price Adder 15-50%CA$0.005/kWh
Municipal/Public Sector Entity Price Adder >50%CA$0.010/kWh

Sources:Ontario Power Authority FIT website

Ontario Power Authority price schedule

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island has no FITs, but a Net Metering Program through Maritime Electric.

Source:Maritime Electric

Quebec

Quebec has no FIT, but Net Metering is available through Hydro Quebec.

Source:Hydro Quebec

Saskatchewan

No feed-in tariffs. SaskPower also offers a Net Metering Program, which pays a producer the same rate at which they purchase power.

Source:Saskatchewan Research Council

Yukon

No feed-in tariffs. Yukon offers a Net Metering Program called the Micro-generation program.

Source:Government of Yukon

Costa Rica

The Costa Rican Regulatory Authority for Public Services (Aresep) has defined photovoltaic feed-in tariffs that apply to facilities under the net metering scheme as well as to independent plants of up to 20 MW capacity. The surplus rate paid to energy producers (including the purchase cost of electricity), varies by distribution company as follows:

Distribution CompanySizeIncentiveTerm
ICE Distribución< 20 MWCRC 56.92Until December 31, 2016
CNFL< 20 MWCRC 58.28Until December 31, 2016
JASEC< 20 MWCRC 57.01Until December 31, 2016
ESPH< 20 MWCRC 57.31Until December 31, 2016
Coopelesca< 20 MWCRC 49.84Until December 31, 2016
Coopeguanacaste< 20 MWCRC 52.81Until December 31, 2016
Coopesantos< 20 MWCRC 57.97Until December 31, 2016
Coopealfaro Ruiz< 20 MWCRC 52.33Until December 31, 2016

Source:Costa Rican FIT

Ecuador

The current Ecuadorian feed-in tariff is not available to solar installations.

Source:pv magazine article on Ecuadorian Feed-In Tariff

Netherlands Antilles

Projects in the Netherlands Antilles receive the same incentives as those in the Netherlands.

As of August 7, 2013, the solar feed-in tariff in the Netherlands had exhausted its budget and was closed for new applications.

The Energy Investment Allowance (EIA) still allows entrepreneurs to deduct 44% of the investment costs for PV equipment (purchase and/or production costs) from their company’s fiscal profit, over the calendar year in which the equipment was purchased (up to a maximum of €113 million).

Sources:Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs

Dutch Energy Investment Allowance 2009 Guide

United States

There are number of Federal Tax Exemptions and Incentives available to photovoltaic installations. The details of these in full can be found on the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Alabama

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Tennessee Valley Authority Green Power Switch Generation Partners

Tennessee Valley Authority Renewable Standard Offer

Alaska

Alaska has a performance-based incentive which requires voluntary contributions by purchasers for renewable energy. It is available for systems of 25kW or less. It currently pays US$0.10005/kWh for non-firm power. For more information, see the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.
<

Arizona

Arizona has quite a few incentives, the most significant of which are net metering and the Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit. It reduces a corporation’s/individual’s tax in relation to the amount of energy produced. A system must be over 5MW to be eligible. Tax is reduced over a 10-year period as follows:

PeriodTax ReductionTerm
Year 1US$0.04/kWh10 years
Year 2US$0.04/kWh10 years
Year 3US$0.035/kWh10 years
Year 4US$0.035/kWh10 years
Year 5US$0.03/kWh10 years
Year 6US$0.03/kWh10 years
Year 7US$0.02/kWh10 years
Year 8US$0.02/kWh10 years
Year 9US$0.01/kWh10 years
Year 10US$0.01/kWh10 years

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Arkansas

There are currently few incentives for PV development in Arkansas, but there is a net metering scheme. For more information, see the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency website.

California

California has a multitude of incentives available, including a very flexible FIT for projects up to 3MW in size. The FIT requires the energy producer to sign a contract for either 10, 15 or 20 years with a utility. The amount paid for energy is calculated from current market price. Below are the rates set for the most recent PV installations. For more details, see references.

SizeIncentiveTerm
<3MWUS$0.08923/kWh10, 15 or 20 years

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

California Public Utilities Commission

PG&E

California Public Utilities Commission

California – Los Angeles

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) offers Standard Offer Power Purchase Agreements (SOPPA) for a total of 20 MW of photovoltaic installations, of which up to 4 MW can be small projects. Applications were accepted from July 8 to July 12, 2013. The next round is yet to be announced. The LADWP program currently pays US$0.16/kWh. The payments per kWh are based on the base price energy (BPE) multiplied by the Time of Delivery Multipliers in the table below.

TimeHigh Peak
Mon – Fri (1pm – 5pm)
Low Peak
Mon – Fri (10am – 1pm)
Mon – Fri (5pm – 8pm)
Base Load
Mon – Fri (8pm – 10am)
Sat – Sun (all day)
High Season
(Jun – Sep)
2.25 multiplier1.10 multiplier0.50 multiplier
Low Season
(Oct – May)
1.30 multiplier0.90 multiplier0.50 multiplier

Source:LA Department of Water & Power

California – Palo Alto

The City of Palo Alto enacted a FIT beginning in April, 2012.

SizeIncentiveTerm
>100kWUS$0.165/kWh20 years

Source:City of Palo Alto

California – Marin County

Marin County has a slightly more generous FIT than the statewide FIT. Note that the standard in Northern California is for installers to quote in AC wattage as per the California Energy Commission. To convert this to Performance Test Conditions (PTC) DC wattage (nationwide standard outside of Northern California), divide it by the inverter efficiency (e.g. 95%=0.95).

SizeIncentiveTerm
<1MWUS$0.13766/kWh20 years

Source:Marin Clean Energy

Colorado

“Xcel Energy’s Solar*Rewards Program provides incentives for customers who install grid-connected PV systems sized up to 120% of the average annual load of their homes and facilities in exchange for the renewable energy credits (RECs) produced by the systems.

NOTE: As of October 11, 2013, Xcel was not accepting new applications through the medium program for systems 25 – 500 kW.”

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-10kW (customer-owned)US$0.03/kWh20 years
0.5-10kW (third party owned)US$0.01/kWh20 years
10-500kWClosed until 201420 years
500kW+Bid process20 years

Black Hills Energy provides performance-based incentive (PBI) for photovoltaic systems up to 100 kilowatts in capacity in exchange for the renewable energy credits (RECs). PBI payments are made annually for a period of 10 years.

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-10kWUS$0.050/kWh20 years
10-30kWUS$0.050/kWh20 years
30-60kWUS$0.075/kWh20 years
60-100kWUS$0.075/kWh20 years

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Xcel Energy

DSIRE on Black Hills Energy

Connecticut

Connecticut has implemented a Zero-emissions Renewable Energy Credit (ZREC) scheme, which covers PV installations. ZREC projects may not be larger than 1MW in size. A ZREC is awarded to the generator for each megawatt hour of energy produced. Small ZREC projects (< 100 kW) have a current rate of US$84.04 (US$0.08404/kWh). Medium (100 – 250 kW) and large (250 kW – 1 MW) ZREC projects undergo a bidding process and bidders may bid up to a maximum payment of US$325.50 per ZREC (US$0.3255/kWh).

Connecticut Light & Power changed their name to Eversource and shifted from the ZREC scheme to only offering net metering.

The United Illuminating Company’s second request for proposals (RFP) was completed on July 17, 2014. Anticipated Delivery Term Start Dates are: January 1, 2016; and April 1, 2016.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Connecticut Light & Power

The United Illuminating Company

Delaware

Delaware has a system of Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs), which require electricity suppliers to purchase a certain percentage of the electricity sold in the state from renewable sources. The percentage increases each year and is working toward a 2026 figure of 3.5% PV. As of August 2012 SRECs were trading at approximately US$0.189/kWh.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Florida

The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) pays a premium of US$0.05/kWh of power generated by PV whether the energy was used by the customer or fed into the grid.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Florida – Gainesville

Rooftop/BIPVGround-mountedTerm
SizeIncentiveSizeIncentive
<10kWUS$0.21/kWh<10kWUS$0.21/kWh20 years
10-300kWUS$0.18/kWh10-25kWUS$0.18/kWh20 years
25kW-1MWUS$0.15/kWh20 years

This FIT closed to new applicants on February 5, 2013. GRU will not accept applications for new projects in 2014.

Source:GRU Energy

Georgia

Georgia has a small (US$2.5m/year) Clean Energy Tax Credit which equals 35% of the cost of the system (including installation cost). For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Georgia Power also offers the Solar Buyback Program. The contract is for 5 years and pays US$0.17/kWh. There is a maximum system size of 10 kW for residential systems and 100 kW for commercial systems.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Georgia Power

Hawaii

In addition to a 35 percent Solar and Wind Energy Credit Corporate Tax Credit for solar PV systems, Hawaii also has an island-wide FIT.

Hawaii – Main Island and Maui

SizeIncentiveTerm
<20kWUS$0.218/kWh20 years
20-250kWUS$0.189/kWh20 years
250kW-2.72MWUS$0.197/kWh20 years

Hawaii – Oahu

SizeIncentiveTerm
<20kWUS$0.218/kWh20 years
20-500kWUS$0.189/kWh20 years
500kW-5MWUS$0.197/kWh20 years

Hawaii – Lanai & Molokai

SizeIncentiveTerm
<20kWUS$0.218/kWh20 years
20-100kWUS$0.189/kWh20 years

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

DSIRE Hawaii Feed-In Tariff

Idaho

Educational institutions have access to the Solar For Schools program. All other dwellings can access various incentives, which can be found at the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Illinois

The Illinois Solar Energy Association offers the Renewable Energy Credit Aggregation Program (RECAP) which is currently trading Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs) at US$75/MWh (US$0.075/kWh). The last deadline for applications was on July 24, 2015, and the next round is yet to be announced.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Indiana

In addition to rebates and grants available, NIPSCO offers FITs. The Micro Solar program (5 – 10 kW) is currently open for applications. The Intermediate Solar program (10 – 200 kW) is closed for applications until Spring 2017.

SizeIncentiveTerm
5 – 10 kWUS$0.17/kWhUp to 15 years
10 – 20 kWUS$0.15/kWhUp to 15 years

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Iowa

The Farmers Electric Cooperative (FEC) in Kalona purchases PV-generated energy for US$0.125/kWh for systems between 0.5kW and 10kW.

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-10kWUS$0.125/kWh10 years

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Kansas

Kansas has no FIT, but a number of tax exemptions and net metering for PV. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Kentucky

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Louisiana

Louisiana has no FIT, but a number of tax exemptions and net metering for PV. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Maine

Maine has a modest FIT currently as a pilot program (with only three approved PV projects so far). It also offers a number of incentives. Refer to sources for more information.

SizeIncentiveTerm
<1MW DCUS$0.10/kWhUntil 31 Dec, 2015
1-10MW DCBid processUntil 31 Dec, 2015

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Maryland

Maryland has Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs) as opposed to FITs. As of March 2015 Maryland-sourced SRECs traded at an average of US$160/MWh (US$0.16/kWh), according to data reported by PJM Generation Attributes Tracking System (GATS). They very rarely exceed US$400/MWh (US$0.40/kWh) due to compliance with the Maryland RPS.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency SRECs

Massachusetts

Massachusetts’ Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) has the Solar Carve-Out II Program. The auction price per MWh in 2016 is US$300/MWh (US$0.30/kWh) and the auction price minus the 5% auction fee is US$285/MWh (US$0.285/kWh).

Market SectorGeneration Unit TypeSREC Factor
A1. Generation Units with a capacity of <=25 kW DC1
2. Solar Canopy Generation Units1
3. Emergency Power Generation Units1
4. Community Shared Solar Generation Units1
5. Low or Moderate Income Housing Generation Units1
B1. Building Mounted Generation Units0.9
2. Ground mounted Generation Units with a capacity > 25 kW DC with 67% or more of the electric output on an annual basis used by an on-site load0.9
C1. Generation Units sited on Eligible Landfills0.8
2. Generation Units sited on Brownfields0.8
3. Ground mounted Generation Units with a capacity of <= 650 kW with less than 67% of the electrical output on an annual basis used by an on-site load0.8
Managed GrowthUnit that does not meet the criteria of Market Sector A, B, or C0.7

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency SREC-I

Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency SREC-II

Michigan

Michigan has a FIT of US$0.200/kWh for non-residential customers for systems between 1 and 150kW. Residential customers receive a FIT of $0.259/kWh for systems between 1 and 20kW. Phase 29 (residential) and phase 30 (non-residential) closed on March 31, 2015. Applications are currently closed.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Minnesota

Minnesota has the Made in Minnesota (MiM) Solar Incentive Program, which offers premium payments to solar installations that utilize locally-made modules. The incentives are as follows:

Commercial/For Profit <40 kW DCNon-Profit/Government <40 kW DCResidential <10 kW DC
Silicon Energy modulesUS$0.23/kWhUS$0.25/kWhUS$0.30/kWh
tenKsolar modulesUS$0.13/kWhUS$0.15/kWhUS$0.23/kWh
HelieneUS$0.13/kWhUS$0.15/kWhUS$0.23/kWh
itek Energy ModulesUS$0.18/kWhUS$0.20/kWhUS$0.27/kWh

Eligible tenKsolar modules: TKS-CXXXXXX 180 watt, TKS-EXXXXXX 180 watt, TKS-DXXXXXX 180 watt, TKS-FXXXXXXX 190 watt, XT-A 410 Watt

Eligible Silicon Energy modules: Cascade SiE 150, 155, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 205

Austin Utilities also offers a rebate of US$1/W of installed solar power as a one-time payment. This can be up to a maximum of US$10,000 (i.e. 10kW).

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Minnesota Department of Commerce

Mississippi

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Tennessee Valley Authority Renewable Standard Offer

Missouri

There are currently few incentives for PV development in Missouri but there is a net metering scheme.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Montana

Montana has no FIT, but a number of grants and tax exemptions. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Nebraska

In Nebraska energy company Lincoln Electric System offers net metering for systems smaller than 25 kW and a Renewable Generation Rate for systems with a capacity of 25 – 100 kW. This program pays energy from renewable sources US$0.0995/kWh in the summer and US$0.0573/kWh in the winter. Under the program, a charge of US$40.25 applies each billing period for billing, metering, connection, and distribution. More detail can be found in the reference.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE)

Nevada

Nevada Tracks Renewable Energy Credits (NVTRECs) are only available to systems larger than 150kW. A PV system receives 2.4 Portfolio Energy Credits (PCs) for every kWh generated and if it is a distributed generation system, it receives 2.45 PCs/kWh. Each PC is valid for four years from the date of issue and is valued at US$0.055. Thus, PV systems receive a minimum of $US0.132/kWh.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Nevada Tracks Renewable Energy Credits

Nevada State Legislature – RECs Overview

New Hampshire

New Hampshire has a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), which pays US$55.75/MWh (US$0.05575/kWh) in 2015.

Source: New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission

New Jersey

New Jersey’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has set up a trading system of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs). Solar facilities are qualified to generate SRECs for 15 years and each SREC is valid for 3 years (can be used by an electricity supplier for compliance in the year it is issued or one of the subsequent two compliance years). Throughout 2012 average prices ranged from US$225-US$390 per MWh (US$0.225/kWh-US$0.39/kWh). The price of the Solar Alternative Compliance Payment (SACP) is essentially a ceiling on the value of SRECs and it is currently scheduled as follows:

Reporting YearSACP (US$/MWh)Term
2012-2013US$64115 years
2013-2014US$33915 years
2014-2015US$33115 years
2015-2016US$32315 years
2016-2017US$31515 years
2017-2018US$30815 years
2018-2019US$30015 years
2019-2020US$29315 years
2020-2021US$28615 years
2021-2022US$27915 years
2022-2023US$27215 years
2023-2024US$26615 years
2024-2025US$26015 years
2025-2026US$25315 years
2026-2027US$25015 years
2027-2028US$23915 years

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency SRECs

New Mexico

New Mexico has Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) and a number of companies offer higher payments for solar power. Through comparing prices, the most highly-paid options are listed:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-10kWUS$0.025/kWh (PNM)12 years
10kW-100kWUS$0.05/kWh (Xcel Energy)10 years
100kW-1MWUS$0.02/kWh (PNM)20 years
1-8MWFully subscribed (PNM)20 years

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency PNM
DSIRE on XCEL Energy

El Paso Electric Company

PNM Solar Energy Customer Program

XCEL Energy

New York

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers 50% of installed costs and up to US$3m per applicant for projects over 50kW. There is also a local FIT, where applicants are selected via a bidding process. See the source for more details.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

North Carolina

North Carolina has a number of power companies with various Renewable Energy Credit (REC) trading schemes and incentives for solar power. NC Green Power (NCGP) offers fixed payments for PV energy fed into the grid. The figures are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
<5kWUS$0.06/kWh (NCGP)5 years
5-11.5kWBid process (NCGP)5 years

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Tennessee Valley Authority Green Power Switch Generation Partners

Tennessee Valley Authority Renewable Standard Offer

North Dakota

North Dakota has no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Ohio

 

Ohio has a Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) scheme. The Solar Alternative Compliance Payment (SACP) essentially acts as a cap for the price of SRECs. In 2015 and 2016, it is set at US$300/MWh (US$0.30/kWh) and will be reduced by US$50 every two years thereafter to a minimum of US$50/MWh (US$0.05/kWh) in 2024. The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) granted a force majeure determination in 2010 for all four retail electric companies, relieving them of their obligation to pay SACP, as none of them were able to meet the 2009 Solar Carve Out requirements.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Oklahoma

Oklahoma has no FIT, but a number of incentives. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Oregon

 

Oregon has legislated for a solar volumetric incentive rate pilot program. Under this program, systems are paid for the energy generated over a 15 year period, at a rate set at the time of enrolment. Systems under 100kW in size can participate in the net metering portion of the program. The actual rate paid to the customer-generator is the volumetric incentive rate minus the retail rate. The next window for enrolment opens on May 1, 2015. The below table lists the Volumetric Incentive Rates. Check the reference for which rate class corresponds to which counties.

Rate ClassElectric Companies<10kW10-100kWTerm
1Pacific Power and PGEUS$0.351/kWhUS$0.175/kWh15 years
2Pacific Power and PGEUS$0.227/kWhUS$0.160/kWh15 years
3Pacific PowerUS$0.252/kWhUS$0.227/kWh15 years
4Pacific Power and Idaho PowerUS$0.207/kWhUS$0.160/kWh15 years

Systems from 100-500kW participate in competitive bidding for allocation of funding. This portion of the program will be closed when the 25MW cap is reached, or on March 31, 2015, whichever is earlier.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

US Energy Information Administration

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has a Solar Alternative Energy Credit (SAEC) system. SAECs are analogous to other states’ SRECs (i.e. they represent 1 MWh of PV power generation). Any system is eligible and during 2015, the market price ranged from approximately US$32-US$55/MWh (US$0.032-US$0.055/kWh).

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Rhode Island

As of June 15, 2015, Rhode Island has a FIT with the following rates:

SizeIncentiveTerm
1 – 10 kW (host owned)US$0.4135/kWh15 years
1 – 10 kW (host owned)US$0.3775/kWh15 years
11 – 25 kW (host owned)US$0.2980/kWh15 years
1 – 10 kW (third party owned)US$0.3295/kWh15 years

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

South Carolina

South Carolina has a number of power companies with various Renewable Energy Credit (REC) trading schemes and incentives for solar power. South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G), Progress Energy Carolinas (PEC) and Duke Energy (DE) offer net metering payments for PV energy fed into the grid. In addition, Palmetto Clean Energy offers a grant program for schools and non-profits.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

South Dakota

South Dakota has no FIT, but a number of incentives. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Tennessee

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Tennessee Valley Authority Green Power Switch Generation Partners

Tennessee Valley Authority Renewable Standard Offer

Texas

Austin Energy offers a number of rebates and loans along with their FIT. They accept systems up to 200kW in size and currently pay US$0.09/kWh for 10 years.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Utah

Utah has no FIT, but it has net metering and a number of incentives. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Vermont

Green Mountain Power credits customers with net-metered PV systems up to 15 kW with US$0.053/kWh and above 15 kW with US$0.043/kWh and customers retain ownership of the Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) associated with the energy generated. Alternatively, the Vermont Standard Offer for Qualifying SPEED Resources pays whatever a generator can negotiate with a purchaser (with 18 utilities to choose from) with a guaranteed term of 25 years for systems up to 2.2MW in size.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Virginia

Dominion Virginia Power customers that install PV systems can receive US$0.15/kWh under contract for 5 years. For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

SizeIncentiveTerm
0.5-50kWUS$0.02/kWh10 years

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2015, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

NOTE: TVA has issued additional 100 MW of capacity for Renewable Standard Offer (RSO) program for 2015. Applications for new projects opened on January 2, 2015.

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Tennessee Valley Authority Renewable Standard Offer

Washington

The Chelan County Public Utility District offers a FIT of US$0.09/kWh and Orcas Power & Light Cooperative offers a FIT of US$0.04/kWh. Washington also offers a statewide FIT, as well as a number of other incentives and net metering. See reference for more information.

Manufactured in Washington stateSizeIncentiveTerm
Modules and inverter<75kWUS$0.54/kWhUntil June 30, 2020
Modules, not inverter<75kWUS$0.36/kWhUntil June 30, 2020
Inverter, not modules<75kWUS$0.18/kWhUntil June 30, 2020
Neither modules nor inverter<75kWUS$0.15/kWhUntil June 30, 2020

Sources:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

West Virginia

West Virginia has no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin has the Madison Gas & Electric (MGE) green power purchase program (Green Power Tomorrow). Under this program, the electricity produced from 1 to 10kW DC systems will be purchased by MGE at a rate of US$0.25/kWh. This rate will apply to all electricity produced by the system. As the program is limited to Green Power Tomorrow participants, customers will purchase electricity from the utility at the normal retail rate plus the green power premium (currently US$0.0125/kWh). Currently this program is fully subscribed because it reached it 1MW cap. Customers can be placed on a waiting list to apply for the net metering program.

SizeIncentiveTerm
1-10kW DCUS$0.25/kWh10 years

River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU) did offer a special rate for PV systems up to 4kW of US$0.30/kWh, under contract for 10 years, but it has been fully subscribed.

Source:Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Wyoming

Wyoming has no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

NOTE: Guam, the North Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico have no FITs, but do have a number of incentives and net metering options. The Virgin Islands of the United States have a FIT for US$0.26/kWh for systems between 10 and 500 kW. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.