Functional requirements for grid-forming inverters


From pv magazine USA

Gamesa Electric recently published a white paper on the transition from a power grid sustained by large spinning turbine power plants to one predominantly managed by grid-forming inverters, harnessing the power of wind, solar, and batteries. The transition will be marked by a shift from generation stability to constant variation.

On June 8, pv magazine hosted a webinar to discuss the major functionalities in the most advanced inverters, corroborated by real test results by Gamesa.

Modern inverters usually rely on the power grid’s voltage, in conjunction with the current generated by solar modules, for operation. However, in grid-forming mode, the inverter’s power converter also acts as a voltage source, meaning it can independently create an electrical grid. Moreover, it has the capability to alter its operation in response to changes on the larger power scale.

This technique of managing voltage and current by the inverter, while monitoring the grid and making adjustments to maintain stability within the power conditioning system (PCS), is known as a Virtual Synchronous Machine.

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Standard ancillary functions provided by Gamesa inverters include the above noted ability to manage voltage regulation, power factor regulation (also known as active power), active ramp rate, fault and voltage ride-through, power oscillation damping, and the two stages of fast frequency response: synthetic inertia and primary frequency response (also referred to as frequency droop).


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