The global market for HJT


The solar industry is experiencing tremendous growth, with surpassed milestones making headlines on a regular basis. The industry as a whole surged past 1 TW of cumulative capacity by the end of 2022, and BloombergNEF (BNEF) estimates that 414 GW of global solar installations were added in 2023. Feeding optimism in the industry is the new target to triple global renewable energy capacity by 2030 – set at the recent COP28 meeting. In its Global Market Outlook for Solar Power 2023-2027, SolarPower Europe projects that 401 GW of solar capacity will be added in 2024, bringing total capacities to 2 TW worldwide in early 2025.

Despite this positive news, BNEF notes that the industry as a whole is facing high inventory, with stronger manufacturers continuing to produce modules while waiting for weaker competitors to leave the market in response to falling costs. In its Global PV Outlook, 4Q 2023, BNEF states “Although installation volumes across Europe (both in the European Union and non-EU markets) are up 35% in 2023 compared with 2022, this is less than some sources expected.” The report highlights that the 60-80 GW of inventory in the European supply chain could “take more than a year to work through.” Amid this landscape, solar cell manufacturers are increasingly using newer technological advances to achieve both high module power and efficiency while reducing material costs.

January 2024 insights from TrendForce analysts point to a “bleak” outlook for p-type polysilicon and a shift to the production of n-type wafers. In particular, the decline in n-type wafer prices “means that they now have a cost advantage per watt due to their ability to be made into higher-efficiency solar cells,” according to BNEF’s report, which expects p-type cells to fall below 10% of the market share by the end of 2025.

N-type solar cells exhibit many superiorities to traditional p-type cells, such as higher conversion efficiency, greater bifaciality, a lower temperature coefficient, and improved performance under low light conditions. These advantages are driving the global transition to n-type technologies.

Applications where high bifaciality is key include rooftop installations, as well as vertical agrivoltaics – both rapidly developing segments. Heterojunction (HJT) solutions on the market are already exhibiting up to 97% bifaciality, compared with the 85% bifaciality of TOPCon technologies. Researchers from Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and Aachen University reported the theoretical maximum efficiency of n-type wafers to be 29.43%, and Huasun is quickly making advances toward that limit, projecting its HJT cells will be able to achieve 28% efficiency in 2025.

Ultimately, any renewable energy solution must also be greener than the energy sources it replaces, which is driving global interest in low-carbon solar technology solutions that are manufactured using simpler, less energy-intensive processes and that don’t require depletion of limited natural resources and precious metals. As we will read later in this edition, Huasun is making great strides in both of these areas with the evolution of its HJT cells and modules.

European market

According to SolarPower Europe’s EU Market Outlook for Solar Power 2023-2027, Europe added a total of 55.9 GW of solar power generation capacity in 2023, representing 40% growth over 2022. The report highlights the top five countries for newly installed generation capacity in 2023: Germany (14.1 GW), Spain (8.2 GW), Italy (4.8 GW), Poland (4.6 GW), and the Netherlands (4.1 GW).

Germany’s massive growth is attributed to new regulations that took full effect at the beginning of 2023, including an increase in feed-in tariffs for new rooftop systems and a reduction of VAT to 0% on residential solar system purchases up to 30 kW in size. Spain’s growth decreased slightly in 2023 – from 8.4 GW in 2022 – due to delays in subsidy payments to residential buyers, which has hurt interest in rooftop purchases. The country’s primary solar sector remains C&I, thanks to power purchase agreements and ground-mounted solar parks.

Italy nearly doubled its number of installations between 2022 and 2023, driven by a “Superbonus” tax break that ended on December 31, 2023. The country’s largest share of new capacity was from the C&I sector at 43%, with residential contributing around 40%. In Poland, growth in larger rooftop and ground-mounted systems in 2023 was countered by decreases in residential installations due to falling electricity prices and the removal of attractive incentives for consumers.

Rounding out the top five is the Netherlands, which experienced a 10% increase over 2022 numbers. Despite a net-metering policy for the residential solar, the sector decreased slightly from the record levels experienced due to the energy crisis of 2022. C&I and ground-mounted solar both increased, although these sectors are now experiencing problems due to grid congestion.

Huasun’s presence in Europe is bolstered by projects in Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Switzerland, as well as in the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The company’s HJT modules are meeting the region’s demands for all market scenarios: utility, C&I, and residential.

Huasun Energy works as the exclusive HJT module provider for the 650 MW Apriltsi Village Solar Park in Pazardzhik, Bulgaria.

Image: Huasun Energy

Large, utility-scale projects in Europe include a 650 MW project in Bulgaria, for which Huasun is the exclusive module provider. The project provides more than 1 billion kWh of power per year. Because the system saves 412,000 tons of coal per year, it reduces annual CO2 emissions by over 1 million tons.

In December 2023, Huasun signed a supply deal with a solar project investor and EPC in Serbia for projects across the Balkan Peninsula. As part of the deal, Huasun will deliver 3 GW total of its G12R Everest series rectangular modules to support ground-mounted PV projects in the region, beginning with an initial consignment of 150 MW of modules slated for Bulgaria in the first half of 2024.

Middle East and Africa

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has one of the world’s highest levels of solar radiation. It’s no wonder that it is also experiencing remarkable growth in solar power production. All eyes were on the region as the United Arab Emirates hosted the COP28 meetings at the end of 2023.

The Middle East Solar Industry Association’s Solar Outlook Report Special Edition, published in advance of COP28, emphasized strong expectations for future solar growth in MEA countries driven by the region’s “audacious plan to add 209 GW of solar PV capacity.” The report highlights efforts by Egypt, Saudia Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates to address water security concerns through use of solar power for desalinization. It also emphasizes ambitious targets by individual countries, such as Saudia Arabia’s goal of 40 GW of solar capacity by 2030 and Afghanistan’s aim of generating 40% of its electricity through solar by 2032. The use of HJT modules in this region is a natural choice, given the technology’s outstanding performance in high temperature environments.

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On the African continent, chronic power outages have driven the growth in PV installations to stabilize the grid. According to the Africa Solar Industry Association, South Africa alone added nearly 3 GW of capacity in 2023, after having added approximately 1.4 GW in 2022. Data from Solcast puts Egypt at the top of the list of North African countries for solar capacity, with 5 GW installed and another 17 GW announced or in development.

In 2023, Tunisia announced plans for 1 GW of solar through two different tenders. Huasun is already active in the country with a project in downtown Tunis demonstrating a 180 kW commercial rooftop HJT solar installation. The system, which uses Huasun’s Himalaya all-black HJT modules with SMBB multi-busbar design, is expected to generate 322,600 kWh per year and to reduce annual CO2 emissions by 321,600 kg. To improve the reliability of the HJT modules in the country’s subtropical Mediterranean climate, a polyisobutylene (PIB) sealant was added to the edges of the modules to block the intrusion of water vapor and, combined with the adoption of light conversion film technology, resist the attenuation caused by ultraviolet radiation.

In addition to the Tunisian project, Huasun is also actively working with partners on projects in Iraq and Cyprus, and the company recently signed a distribution partnership agreement with Adir Energy to distribute HJT modules in Saudia Arabia. Huasun is also considering adding manufacturing capacity in the Middle East in 2024.

HJT close to home

The Asia-Pacific (APAC) region has dominated the market for solar products, and the International Energy Association’s Renewables 2023 report expects more than 288 GW of PV capacity to be added in the region by 2028. According to BNEF, China alone reached 240 GW of newly-installed PV modules in 2023.

Huasun has four HJT manufacturing facilities and many projects in China, with the domestic market accounting for 50% of all its production capacity. Huasun is committed to building over 40 GW production capacity by 2025 in its production bases in Xuancheng, Hefei, Wuxi, and Dali.

Projects the company is undertaking with partners in China include a 10 MW floating HJT solar installation in Shandong. The project has a power generation capacity of 12.6 MW per year and will reduce annual carbon emissions by 12,598 tons. Huasun’s V-ocean module – suitable for wet environments – was developed specifically for floating and offshore projects. The manufacturer’s agrivoltaic projects in China include a 50 MW installation in Shandong and a 23 MW fishery PV system in Anhui.

In mid-2023, Huasun signed an agreement with PowerChina Huadong Engineering Corporation to supply a total of 2.02 GW of its G12-132 HJT modules to its large-scale solar power plants located in Dali, Yunnan province. The PV plants, constructed on mountains, will aid the prefecture in achieving its clean energy targets. To date, 300 MW of these projects have been built up.

In South Asia, Huasun recently achieved registration with the Bureau of Indian Standards for its Himalaya G12 Series modules, paving the path for sales in the Indian solar market. The manufacturer is also working with the Tayyab Group of Industries (TGOIs) in Punjab, Pakistan, to build a 20 MWp solar power plant that will provide power to the group’s head office.

In the Pacific, Huasun is cooperating with a Japanese utility on a 6 MW project that is currently generating over 8.7 MWh of power per year and reducing annual carbon emissions by more than 8,600 tons. Additionally, the company’s HJT products exclusively power the 20+ MWp Luxshare Precision Rooftop Solar Power Project that was recently connected to the grid and commenced operation in northern Vietnam.

In Thailand, Huasun is partnered with Grow Energy on the country’s first floating HJT PV project, and the company inked a separate distribution agreement with Quality Solar Distribution for 150 MW of modules. Further afield in the region, Huasun and Prosun Solar signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) focused on promoting HJT in the Australian solar energy industry. As part of the agreement, Huasun will deliver 150 MW of its high-efficiency HJT modules, which are targeted at the residential solar market.

Further development

As demand increases around the world for solutions to battle global warming and stabilize grids in energy-starved regions, HJT technology is rapidly pulling ahead of the pack when it comes to solar power generation, due to its recognized advantages. With Huasun’s advanced manufacturing capabilities and focus on tackling challenges in the further development of HJT, the company is poised to continue its domination in this growing market.

This article appears in the new Huasun Corporate Edition, launched on April 10, 2024. Read the whole edition here.


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