Researchers at France's National Solar Energy Institute (INES) – an arm of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – have fabricated an 18%-efficient mini perovskite solar module with a surface of 10 cm².
The panel was developed with a special perovskite material that is also known as CsxFA1-xPb(I1-yBry)3). The material has no methylammonium and includes multiple types of cations and a mix of halogens.
The manufacturing process, according to the researchers, is easy to scale up, as it combines a coating step carried out in air followed by a gas quenching conversion step to form the desired perovskite material.
The perovskite layer is formed at a low temperature of less than 100 Celsius degrees and is then integrated into the modules using laser ablation as a structuring process, thus minimizing inactive areas. The device's fill factor is over 93%. The time required for the deposition of the perovskite layer on an M2 wafer is estimated to be around 30 seconds, which is by far the fastest process for large-scale, high-volume production, according to the scientists.
The proposed manufacturing technique is also claimed to be compatible with the integration of perovskite into heterojunction silicon solar cells in tandem architecture. Enel Green Power, the renewables unit of Italian utility Enel, and CEA-INES announced in August an efficiency of 25.0% for a heterojunction solar cell with an active surface of 213 cm2, based on the M2 silicon wafer format.
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