Feed-in tariffs (FITs)

Australia

Australian Capital Territory

The ACT FIT pays AU$0.075/kWh for systems under 30 kW, guaranteed until 30 June 2020. This is less than the average consumer price of electricity.

Source: ActewAGL


New South Wales

Cancelled on April 28, 2011. The alternative is the Solar Credits scheme.

Source: Solar Bonus Scheme for NSW

 

Northern Territory

NT cancelled its FIT as of January 2013. As an alternative, it has the Solar Credits scheme.

Source: PowerWater PV systems

 

Queensland

Size Incentive Term
<5kW AU$0.0907/kWh Until 2015

South Australia

Size Incentive Term
<30kW AU$0.076/kWh* Until 31 December 2014

* This "fair and reasonable value" will be reviewed by ESCOSA and amended from January 1, 2015 onwards.

Victoria

Size Incentive Term
<5kW AU$0.08/kWh Until 31 December 2016
5-100kW AU$0.08/kWh Until 31 December 2016

Western Australia

Western Australia has the Renewable Energy Buyback Scheme (REBS), that pays AU$0.088529/kWh.

Source: Synergy

 

Canada

Electrical power generation in Canada is under provincial jurisdiction, thus Canada's provinces each have different incentive schemes. Additionally, some provinces without FITs offer either a Net Billing or Net Metering Program. There are two main differences between Net Billing and Net Metering. Net Billing requires more advanced, higher cost metering and it is capable of differentiating between on-peak and off-peak usage. Net Metering is simpler, with less disincentives to feed into the grid.

Alberta

Alberta has no FIT, but it has a Net Billing program.

Source: Howell-Mayhew Engineering

 

British Columbia

British Columbia has no FIT, but the Standing Offer Program instead. This is a Net Metering Program using a "BC Clean" energy source verified by BC Hydro.

Source: BC Hydro Net Metering Program

 

Manitoba

Manitoba has no feed-in tariffs, but a Net Metering Program through Manitoba Hydro for systems under 10MW.

Source: Manitoba Hydro

 

New Brunswick

Net Metering Program through NB Power, but only one solar project thus far.

Source: NB Power

 

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland has no FIT, but a Net Metering Program under development.

Source: Pollution Probe

 

Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories have no FIT and no Net Billing or Net Metering Program available.

 

Nova Scotia

The Nova Scotia FITs do not cover solar energy production. Net Metering is available with NS Power.

Source: NS Power

 

Nunavut

Nunavut has no FIT and no Net Metering or Net Billing Program.

 

Ontario

Rooftop   BIPV/Ground-mounted   Term
Size Incentive Size Incentive  
<10kW CA$0.396/kWh <10kW CA$0.291/kWh 20 years
10-100kW CA$0.345/kWh 10-500kW CA$0.288/kWh 20 years
100-500kW CA$0.329/kWh     20 years

The following price adders apply to BIPV and ground-mounted PV projects:

Aboriginal Price Adder 15-50% CA$0.0075/kWh
Aboriginal Price Adder >50% CA$0.015/kWh
Community Project Price Adder 15-50% CA$0.005/kWh
Community Project Price Adder >50% CA$0.010/kWh
Municipal/Public Sector Entity Price Adder 15-50% CA$0.005/kWh
Municipal/Public Sector Entity Price Adder >50% CA$0.010/kWh

Ontario also requires that a certain percentage of a project shall utilize domestic content. The qualifying percentages for designated activities is as follows:

  • For PV plants utilizing crystalline silicon PV technology, the minimum domestic content levels shall be 22%.
  • For PV plants utilizing thin-film PV technology, the minimum required domestic content level shall be 28%.
  • For PV plants utilizing concentrated PV technology the minimum required domestic content level shall be 19%.
Domestic Content Requirements - Crystalline Silicon Solar PV Projects <10kW  
Designated Activity Qualifying Percentage
Silicon that has been used as input to solar photovoltaic cells manufactured in an Ontario refinery 10%
Silicon ingots and wafer, where silicon ingots have been cast in Ontario and wafers have been cut from the casting by a saw in Ontario 12%
The crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic cells, where their active photovoltaic layer(s) have been formed in Ontario 10%
Solar photovoltaic modules (i.e. panels), where the electrical connections between the solar cells have been made in Ontario, and the solar photovoltaic module materials have been encapsulated in Ontario 13%
Inverter, where the assembly, final wiring and testing has been done in Ontario 9%
Mounting systems, where the structural components of the fixed or moving mounting systems, have been entirely machined or formed or cast in Ontario. The metal for the structural components may not have been pre-machined outside Ontario other than peeling/roughing of the part for quality control purposes when it left the smelter or forge. The machining and assembly of the mounting system must entirely take place in Ontario (i.e. bending, welding, piercing, and bolting) 9%
Wiring and electrical hardware that is not part of other designated activities (i.e., items 1, 2, 3, and 5 of this table), sourced from an Ontario supplier 10%
All on- and off-site labour and services; for greater certainty, this designated activity applies in respect of all contract facilities 27%
Domestic Content Requirements - Crystalline Silicon Solar PV Projects >10kW  
Designated Activity Qualifying Percentage
Silicon that has been used as input to solar photovoltaic cells manufactured in an Ontario refinery 11%
Silicon ingots and wafer, where silicon ingots have been cast in Ontario and wafers have been cut from the casting by a saw in Ontario 13%
The crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic cells, where their active photovoltaic layer(s) have been formed in Ontario 11%
Solar photovoltaic modules (i.e. panels), where the electrical connections between the solar cells have been made in Ontario, and the solar photovoltaic module materials have been encapsulated in Ontario 15%
Inverter, where the assembly, final wiring and testing has been done in Ontario 8%
Mounting systems, where the structural components of the fixed or moving mounting systems, have been entirely machined or formed or cast in Ontario. The metal for the structural components may not have been pre-machined outside Ontario other than peeling/roughing of the part for quality control purposes when it left the smelter or forge. The machining and assembly of the mounting system must entirely take place in Ontario (i.e. bending, welding, piercing, and bolting) 11%
Wiring and electrical hardware that is not part of other designated activities (i.e., items 1, 2, 3, and 5 of this table), sourced from an Ontario supplier 9%
Construction costs and on-site labour, where labour is performed substantially by residents of Ontario 18%
Consulting services performed substantially by residents of Ontario 4%
Domestic Content Requirements - Thin Film Solar PV Projects <10kW  
Designated Activity Qualifying Percentage
Cells where the active photovoltaic layer(s) have been fabricated in Ontario. Where the manufacture of the module is inseparable from the manufacture of the cells, there shall be no separate requirement for the module 35%
Module (i.e. Panel), where the electrical connections were formed and materials encapsulated in Ontario 10%
Inverter, where the assembly, final wiring and testing have been done in Ontario 8%
Mounting systems, where structural components are made in Ontario 10%
Wiring and electrical hardware sourced from an Ontario supplier 9%
All on- and off-site labour and services. For greater certainty, this Designated Activity shall apply in respect of all Contract Facilities. 28%
Domestic Content Requirements - Thin Film Solar PV Projects >10kW  
Designated Activity Qualifying Percentage
Cells where the active photovoltaic layer(s) have been fabricated in Ontario. Where the manufacture of the module is inseparable from the manufacture of the cells, there shall be no separate requirement for the module 35%
Module (i.e. Panel), where the electrical connections were formed and materials encapsulated in Ontario 10%
Inverter, where the assembly, final wiring and testing have been done in Ontario 8%
Mounting systems, where structural components are made in Ontario 10%
Wiring and electrical hardware sourced from an Ontario supplier 9%
Construction costs and on-site labour, where labour is performed substantially by residents of Ontario 24%
Consulting services performed substantially by residents of Ontario 4%
Domestic Content Requirements - Concentrated Solar PV (CPV) Projects <10kW  
Designated Activity Qualifying Percentage
The active photovoltaic layer(s) were fabricated (by methods including molecular beam epitaxy, vapour deposition, evaporation or sputtering) in Ontario 14%
The primary optics were fabricated (by methods including injection moulding and embossing) in Ontario, and any shaping of the glass (or other mirror substrate) and mirror coating was performed in Ontario 9%
Any air-cooled heat sinks must be entirely machined or formed or cast in Ontario, and liquid-cooled heat sinks must be assembled and tested in Ontario 4%
The wiring and assembly of the concentrated solar (PV) cells, optics, module parts, heat sinks and cooling systems takes place in Ontario 21%
The structural components of the fixed or moving mounting systems have been entirely machined or formed or cast in Ontario 17%
Inverter, where the assembly, final wiring and testing have been done in Ontario 11%
Wiring and electrical hardware that is not part of other Designated Activities that has been sourced from an Ontario Supplier 5%
All on- and off- site labour and services performed by individuals Resident in Ontario; for greater certainty, this Designated Activity shall apply in respect of all Contract Facilities 19%

Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island has no FITs, but a Net Metering Program through Maritime Electric.

Source: Maritime Electric

 

Quebec

Quebec has no FIT, but Net Metering is available through Hydro Quebec.

Source: Hydro Quebec

 

Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan does not have a FIT and the Net Metering Program has been suspended as of April 1, 2011.

Source: Saskatchewan Research Council

 

Yukon

Yukon currently has no FIT and a proposal is under way to implement a Net Metering Program.

Source: Opens external link in current windowGovernment of Yukon

Italy

As of July 5, 2013, Italy ceased offering FIT payments because its €6.7 billion cap was reached 30 days prior on June 6. The FIT immediately prior to cancellation is shown below.

The Italian feed-in tariff scheme degresses every six months. It last degressed on February 27, 2013 and is next set to degress on August 27, 2013.

Standard feed-in tariff

Rooftop/BIPV   Ground-mounted   Term
Size Incentive Size Incentive  
1-3kW 0.182€/kWh 1-3kW 0.176€/kWh 20 years
3-20kW 0.171€/kWh 3-20kW 0.165€/kWh 20 years
20-200kW 0.157€/kWh 20-200kW 0.151€/kWh 20 years
200kW-1MW 0.130€/kWh 200kW-1MW 0.124€/kWh 20 years
1MW-5MW 0.118€/kWh 1MW-5MW 0.113€/kWh 20 years
5MW+ 0.112€/kWh 5MW+ 0.106€/kWh 20 years

Standard self-consumption tariff

Rooftop/BIPV   Ground-mounted   Term
Size Incentive Size Incentive  
1-3kW 0.100€/kWh 1-3kW 0.094€/kWh 20 years
3-20kW 0.089€/kWh 3-20kW 0.083€/kWh 20 years
20-200kW 0.075€/kWh 20-200kW 0.069€/kWh 20 years
200kW-1MW 0.048€/kWh 200kW-1MW 0.042€/kWh 20 years
1MW-5MW 0.036€/kWh 1MW-5MW 0.031€/kWh 20 years
5MW+ 0.030€/kWh 5MW+ 0.024€/kWh 20 years

PV plants using innovative technology feed-in tariff

Size Incentive Term
1-20kW 0.242€/kWh 20 years
20-200kW 0.231€/kWh 20 years
>200kW* 0.217€/kWh 20 years

PV plants using innovative technology self-consumption tariff

Size Incentive Term
1-20kW 0.160€/kWh 20 years
20-200kW 0.149€/kWh 20 years
>200kW* 0.135€/kWh 20 years

Concentrating PV plants feed-in tariff

Size Incentive Term
1-20kW 0.215€/kWh 20 years
20-200kW 0.201€/kWh 20 years
>200kW* 0.174€/kWh 20 years

Concentrating PV plants self-consumption tariff

Size Incentive Term
1-20kW 0.133€/kWh 20 years
20-200kW 0.119€/kWh 20 years
>200kW* 0.092€/kWh 20 years

* For PV plants with a nominal power over 1MWp, the GSE does not purchase the electricity produced but pays a feed-in premium that is determined as the difference between the feed-in tariff above and the applicable average electricity market price.

The feed-in premiums in the table are further increased by the following increments:

  • €0.02/kWh for plants using modules and inverters that were produced in the European Union or European Economic Area if they enter into operation on or before 31 December 2013; €0.01/kWh if they enter into operation on or before 31 December 2014; and €0.005/kWh if they enter into operation after 31 December 2014.
  • €0.03/kWh for plants up to 20 kW nominal power installed on rooftops with simultaneous complete removal of asbestos and €0.02/kWh for plants above 20 kW nominal power if they enter into operation on or before 31 December 2013; €0.02/kWh up to 20 kW nominal power and €0.01/kWh above 20 kW nominal power if they enter into operation on or before 31 December 2014; and €0.01/kWh up to 20 kW nominal power and €0.005/kWh above 20 kW nominal power if they enter into operation after 31 December 2014.

Malaysia

FITs for plants below 24 kW degress 8% per year and those above 24 kW degress 20% per year as of March 2013. The bonuses for local modules and inverters do not have yearly degressions.

Rooftop   BIPV   Ground-mounted   Term
Size Incentive Size Incentive Size Incentive  
<4kW 1.2337 MYR/kWh <4kW 1.4407 MYR/kWh <4kW 1.0184 MYR/kWh 21 years
4-24kW 1.2089 MYR/kWh 4-24kW 1.4159 MYR/kWh 4-24kW 0.9936 MYR/kWh 21 years
24-72kW 1.0649 MYR/kWh 24-72kW 1.2719 MYR/kWh 24-72kW 0.8496 MYR/kWh 21 years
72kW-1MW 1.0361 MYR/kWh 72kW-1MW 1.2431 MYR/kWh 72kW-1MW 0.8208 MYR/kWh 21 years
1-10MW 0.8993 MYR/kWh 1-10MW 1.1063 MYR/kWh 1-10MW 0.6840 vMYR/kWh 21 years
10-30MW 0.8273 MYR/kWh 10-30MW 1.0343 MYR/kWh 10-30MW 0.6120 MYR/kWh 21 years
Bonus for local modules 0.0500MYR/kWh
Bonus for local inverters 0.0500MYR/kWh

Malta

Size Incentive Term
<40 kW €0.165/kWh 7 years
>40 kW €0.16/kWh 7 years

South Korea

South Korea's FIT system expired in 2011. It then implemented a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) scheme, which required at least 2% of each energy company's supply to come from renewable resources in 2012. This will be ramped up each year according to the below table. The Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO) and its six subsidiaries look set to acquire most of their quotas from biomass and waste, as these look to be the most cost-effective in the short term. However, there is also an amount set aside specifically for solar PV planned until 2016.

RPS renewable energy requirements

2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 4.5% 5.0% 6.0% 7.0% 8.0% 9.0% 10.0%

PV installation capacity requirements

2013 2014 2015 2016
450MW 690MW 1040MW 1200MW

Spain

The new Spanish government, under Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, has suspended all incentives for photovoltaic systems in response to the current financial situation. They have not made clear when, if ever, any incentives will be reinstated. They did make clear that this will not retroactively affect installations which previously secured feed-in tariffs. In place of the FIT, there is legislation in place that allows small generators of up to 100 kW to connect to the grid and receive the market price for any electricity they feed in. Prior to suspension, the planned tariffs were as follows:

Rooftop/BIPV   Ground-mounted   Term
Size Incentive Size Incentive  
<20kW 0.283€/kWh Any size 0.121716€/kWh 30 years
>20kW 0.15675€/kWh     30 years

The Spanish tariff is also limited in how many hours per year it will be paid under Royal Decreto (RD) 14/2010. Until 31 December 2013, the number will be fixed across the country, but from 2014, the country will be divided into five climactic zones (shown in image below) with corresponding limits as follows:

Until 31 Dec, 2013 Fixed Installation Installation with 1-axis tracking Installation with 2-axis tracking
  1250 1644 1707
From 2014 onward      
Zone I 1232 1602 1664
Zone II 1362 1770 1838
Zone III 1492 1940 2015
Zone IV 1632 2122 2204
Zone V 1753 2279 2367

Thailand

The Thai FITs have a ground-mounted quota of 800 MW by December 2014.

Ground-mounted    
Time Incentive Term
Year 1-3 9.75฿/kWh 25 years
Year 4-10 6.5฿/kWh 25 years
Year 11-25 4.5฿/kWh 25 years

Ukraine

To prevent exchange risk, the Ukrainian FIT provides a minimum tariff (i.e. a safety net) based on the exchange rate of the Ukrainian Hryvna to the Euro on 1st January, 2009. As of January 1, 2012, the Green Tariff Law will also require that 30% of the value of the materials, works and services used in construction must come from Ukraine. As of January 1, 2014, this increases to 50%.

  Rooftop/BIPV   Ground-mounted    
Time Size Incentive Size Incentive Term
<100kW €0.358641/kWh Any size €0.339255/kWh Until 2030  
>100kW €0.348948/kWh     Until 2030  

United States

There are number of Federal Tax Exemptions and Incentives available to photovoltaic installations. The details of these in full can be found on the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

Alabama

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-50kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

For larger systems (50kW-1MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2013, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

Alaska

Alaska has a performance-based incentive which requires voluntary contributions by purchasers for renewable energy. It is available for systems of 25kW or less. It currently pays US$0.10005/kWh for non-firm power. For more information, see the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Arizona

Arizona has quite a few incentives, the most significant of which is the Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit. It reduces a corporation's/individual's tax in relation to the amount of energy produced. A system must be over 5MW to be eligible. Tax is reduced over a 10-year period as follows:

Period Tax Reduction Term
Year 1 US$0.04/kWh 10 years
Year 2 US$0.04/kWh 10 years
Year 3 US$0.035/kWh 10 years
Year 4 US$0.035/kWh 10 years
Year 5 US$0.03/kWh 10 years
Year 6 US$0.03/kWh 10 years
Year 7 US$0.02/kWh 10 years
Year 8 US$0.02/kWh 10 years
Year 9 US$0.01/kWh 10 years
Year 10 US$0.01/kWh 10 years

Arkansas

There are currently few incentives for PV development in Arkansas, but there is a net metering scheme. For more information, see the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency website.

 

California

California has a multitude of incentives available, including a very flexible FIT for projects up to 3MW in size. The FIT requires the energy producer to sign a contract for either 10, 15 or 20 years with a utility. The amount paid for energy is calculated from current market price. Below are the rates set for the most recent PV installations. For more details, see references.

Size Incentive Term
<3MW US$0.08923/kWh 10, 15 or 20 years

California - Los Angeles

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) offers Standard Offer Power Purchase Agreements (SOPPA) for a total of 20 MW of photovoltaic installations, of which up to 4 MW can be small projects. Applications were accepted from July 8 to July 12, 2013. The next round is yet to be announced. The LADWP program currently pays US$0.16/kWh. The payments per kWh are based on the base price energy (BPE) multiplied by the Time of Delivery Multipliers in the table below.


Time
High Peak
Mon - Fri (1pm - 5pm)
Low Peak
Mon - Fri (10am - 1pm)
Mon - Fri (5pm - 8pm)
Base Load
Mon - Fri (8pm - 10am)
Sat - Sun (all day)
High Season
(Jun - Sep)
2.25 multiplier 1.10 multiplier 0.50 multiplier
Low Season
(Oct - May)
1.30 multiplier 0.90 multiplier 0.50 multiplier

California - Palo Alto

The City of Palo Alto enacted a FIT beginning in April, 2012.

Size Incentive Term
>100kW US$0.165/kWh 20 years

Source: City of Palo Alto

 

California - San Marin County

San Marin County has a slightly more generous FIT than the statewide FIT. Note that the standard in Northern California is for installers to quote in AC wattage as per the California Energy Commission. To convert this to Performance Test Conditions (PTC) DC wattage (nationwide standard outside of Northern California), divide it by the inverter efficiency (e.g. 95%=0.95).

Size Incentive Term
<1MW US$0.13766/kWh 20 years

Source: Marin Clean Energy

 

Colorado

Xcel Energy's Solar*Rewards Program provides incentives for customers who install grid-connected PV systems sized up to 120% of the average annual load of their homes and facilities in exchange for the renewable energy credits (RECs) produced by the systems.

 

NOTE: As of October 11, 2013, Xcel was not accepting new applications through the medium program for systems 10 - 500 kW. Xcel reopened the program on June 20, 2014.

Size Incentive Term
0.5-10kW (customer-owned) US$0.03/kWh 20 years
0.5-10kW (third party owned) US$0.01/kWh 20 years
10-500kW Closed until 2014 20 years
500kW+ Bid process 20 years

Connecticut

Connecticut has implemented a Zero-emissions Renewable Energy Credit (ZREC) scheme, which covers PV installations. ZREC projects may not be larger than 1MW in size. A ZREC is awarded to the generator for each megawatt hour of energy produced. Small ZREC projects (< 100 kW) have a current rate of US$164.22. Medium (100 - 250 kW) and large (250 kW - 1 MW) ZREC projects undergo a bidding process and bidders may bid up to a maximum payment of US$350 per ZREC (US$0.35/kWh).

Connecticut Light & Power's second request for proposals (RFP) was completed on June 13, 2013 and applications to the third RFP round are due at 1 p.m. on June 5, 2014 with notification of winning bidders to be announced on or about July 17, 2014.

 

The United Illuminating Company's second request for proposals (RFP) was completed on June 13, 2013 and applications to the third RFP round are due at 1 p.m. on June 5, 2014 with notification of winning bidders to be announced on or about July 17, 2014.

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Connecticut Light & Power

The United Illuminating Company

Delaware

Delaware has a system of Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs), which require electricity suppliers to purchase a certain percentage of the electricity sold in the state from renewable sources. The percentage increases each year and is working toward a 2026 figure of 3.5% PV. As of August 2012 SRECs were trading at approximately US$0.189/kWh.

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Delaware Public Service Commission

 

Florida

The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) pays a premium of US$0.05/kWh of power generated by PV whether the energy was used by the customer or fed into the grid.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

Florida - Gainesville

Rooftop/BIPV   Ground-mounted   Term
Size Incentive Size Incentive  
<10kW US$0.21/kWh <10kW US$0.21/kWh 20 years
10-300kW US$0.18/kWh 10-25kW US$0.18/kWh 20 years
    25kW-1MW US$0.15/kWh 20 years

 

This FIT closed to new applicants on February 5, 2013. GRU will not accept applications for new projects in 2014.

Source: GRU Energy

Georgia

Georgia has a small (US$2.5m/year) Clean Energy Tax Credit which equals 35% of the cost of the system (including installation cost). For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-50kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

For larger systems (50kW-1MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2013, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

Georgia Power also offers the Solar Buyback Program. The contract is for 5 years and pays US$0.17/kWh. There is a maximum system size of 10 kW for residential systems and 100 kW for commercial systems.

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Georgia Power

 

Hawaii

In addition to a 35 percent Solar and Wind Energy Credit Corporate Tax Credit for solar PV systems, Hawaii also has an island-wide FIT.

Hawaii - Main Island and Maui

Size Incentive Term
<20kW US$0.218/kWh 20 years
20-250kW US$0.189/kWh 20 years
250kW-2.72MW US$0.197/kWh 20 years

Hawaii - Oahu

Size Incentive Term
<20kW US$0.218/kWh 20 years
20-500kW US$0.189/kWh 20 years
500kW-5MW US$0.197/kWh 20 years

Hawaii - Lanai & Molokai

Size Incentive Term
<20kW US$0.218/kWh 20 years
20-100kW US$0.189/kWh 20 years

Idaho

Educational institutions have access to the Solar For Schools program. All other dwellings can access various incentives, which can be found at the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Illinois

The Illinois Solar Energy Association offers the Renewable Energy Credit Aggregation Program (RECAP) which is currently trading Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs) at US$200/MWh (US$0.20/kWh).

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Indiana

In addition to rebates and grants available, NIPSCO offers FITs:

Size Incentive Term
<10kW (NIPSCO) US$0.30/kWh Up to 15 years
10kW-2MW (NIPSCO) US$0.26/kWh Up to 15 years

Iowa

The Farmers Electric Cooperative (FEC) in Kalona purchases PV-generated energy for US$0.20/kWh for systems between 0.5kW and 10kW.

Size Incentive Term
0.5-10kW US$0.20/kWh 10 years

Kansas

Kansas has no FIT, but a number of tax exemptions and net metering for PV. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Kentucky

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-50kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

For larger systems (50kW-1MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2013, the average price is expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

Louisiana

Louisiana has no FIT, but a number of tax exemptions and net metering for PV. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Maine

Maine has a modest FIT currently as a pilot program (with only three approved PV projects so far). It also offers a number of incentives. Refer to sources for more information.

Size Incentive Term
<1MW DC US$0.10/kWh Until 31 Dec, 2015
1-10MW DC Bid process Until 31 Dec, 2015

Maryland

Maryland has Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs) as opposed to FITs. As of June 2012, they were trading at approximately US$190-US$280/MWh (US$0.19-US$0.28/kWh), according to data reported by PJM Generation Attributes Tracking System (GATS). They very rarely exceed US$400/MWh (US$0.40/kWh) due to compliance with the Maryland RPS.

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

DSIRE Maryland SRECs

 

Massachusetts

 

Massachusetts Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) has a system of Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs). Their minimum price is US$300/MWh (US$0.30/kWh). In 2014 they are trading at US$523/MWh (US$0.523/kWh) and cannot be reduced by more than 10% in any one year.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Michigan

 

 

Michigan has a FIT of US$0.199/kWh for non-residential customers for systems between 1 and 150kW. Residential customers receive a FIT of US$0.243/kWh for systems between 1 and 20kW. Phases 17 and 18 closed on July 5, 2014. Applications for phase 19 (residential) opened on July 1, 2014 with a deadline of August 6, 2014. Applications for phase 20 (non-residential) opens on October 1, 2014 and will close on November 5, 2014.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Minnesota

Minnesota has the Made in Minnesota (MiM) Solar Incentive Program, which offers premium payments to solar installations that utilize locally-made modules. The incentives are as follows:

  Commercial/For Profit <40 kW DC Non-Profit/Government <40 kW DC Residential <10 kW DC
tenKsolar modules US$0.13/kWh US$0.20/kWh US$0.29/kWh
Silicon Energy modules US$0.18/kWh US$0.27/kWh US$0.39/kWh

Eligible tenKsolar modules: TKS-CXXXXXX 180 watt, TKS-EXXXXXX 180 watt, TKS-DXXXXXX 180 watt, TKS-FXXXXXXX 190 watt, XT-A 410 Watt

Eligible Silicon Energy modules: Cascade SiE 150, 155, 160, 165, 170, 175, 180, 185, 190, 195, 200, 205

Austin Utilities also offers a rebate of US$1/W of installed solar power as a one-time payment. This can be up to a maximum of US$10,000 (i.e. 10kW).

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Minnesota Department of Commerce

 

Mississippi

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-200kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

 

For larger systems (50kW-1MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2013, the average price was expected to be $0.036/kWh, with a maximum of $0.051/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring. For projects approved after January 1, 2014, contract prices will escalate 5 percent per year beginning in 2015.

Missouri

Missouri has a modest Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) scheme, which pays US$5/MWh (US$0.005/kWh) in 2013. For systems up to 10kW, this is paid as an up-front lump sum for the estimated number of SRECs that will be produced in 10 years. For systems between 10kW and 100kW, a five-year contract is available, where a power producer is paid at the end of each year for the amount of SRECs they generated.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

Montana

Montana has no FIT, but a number of grants and tax exemptions. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Nebraska

Nebraska only offers loans through the State Loan Program. For more details, see the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Nevada

Nevada Tracks Renewable Energy Credits (NVTRECs) are only available to systems larger than 150kW. A PV system receives 2.4 Portfolio Energy Credits (PCs) for every kWh generated and if it is a distributed generation system, it receives 2.45 PCs/kWh. Each PC is valid for four years from the date of issue and is valued at US$0.055. Thus, PV systems receive a minimum of $US0.132/kWh.

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Nevada Tracks Renewable Energy Credits

Nevada State Legislature - RECs Overview

 

New Hampshire

New Hampshire has a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), which paid US$55.37/MWh (US$0.05537/kWh) in 2013.

         Source: New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission

New Jersey

New Jersey's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has set up a trading system of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates (SRECs). Solar facilities are qualified to generate SRECs for 15 years and each SREC is valid for 3 years (can be used by an electricity supplier for compliance in the year it is issued or one of the subsequent two compliance years). Throughout 2012 average prices ranged from US$225-US$390 per MWh (US$0.225/kWh-US$0.39/kWh). The price of the Solar Alternative Compliance Payment (SACP) is essentially a ceiling on the value of SRECs and it is currently scheduled as follows:

Reporting Year SACP (US$/MWh) Term
2012-2013 US$641 15 years
2013-2014 US$339 15 years
2014-2015 US$331 15 years
2015-2016 US$323 15 years
2016-2017 US$315 15 years
2017-2018 US$308 15 years
2018-2019 US$300 15 years
2019-2020 US$293 15 years
2020-2021 US$286 15 years
2021-2022 US$279 15 years
2022-2023 US$272 15 years
2023-2024 US$266 15 years
2024-2025 US$260 15 years
2025-2026 US$253 15 years
2026-2027 US$250 15 years
2027-2028 US$239 15 years

New Mexico

New Mexico has Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) and a number of companies offer higher payments for solar power. Through comparing prices, the most highly-paid options are listed:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-10kW US$0.10/kWh (Xcel Energy) 12 years
10kW-100kW US$0.05/kWh (Xcel Energy) 10 years
100kW-1MW US$0.02/kWh (PNM) 20 years
1-8MW Fully subscribed (PNM) 20 years

New York

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) offers 50% of installed costs and up to US$3m per applicant for projects over 50kW. There is also a local FIT, where applicants are selected via a bidding process. See the source for more details.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

North Carolina

North Carolina has a number of power companies with various Renewable Energy Credit (REC) trading schemes and incentives for solar power. NC Green Power (NCGP) offers fixed payments for PV energy fed into the grid. The figures are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
<5kW US$0.06/kWh (NCGP) 5 years
5-11.5kW Bid process (NCGP) 5 years

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-50kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

 

For larger systems (50kW-1MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. For 2013, the typical price was varying between $0.029/kWh, in early morning hours in Fall and Spring and $0.082/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh with an average of $0.037/kWh.

North Dakota

North Dakota has no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Ohio

Ohio has a Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) scheme. The Solar Alternative Compliance Payment (SACP) essentially acts as a cap for the price of SRECs. In 2014 and 2015, it is set at US$300/MWh (US$0.30/kWh) and will be reduced by US$50 every two years thereafter to a minimum of US$50/MWh (US$0.05/kWh) in 2024. The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) granted a force majeure determination in 2010 for all four retail electric companies, relieving them of their obligation to pay SACP, as none of them were able to meet the 2009 Solar Carve Out requirements.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

Oklahoma

Oklahoma has no FIT, but a number of incentives. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Oregon

Oregon has legislated for a solar volumetric incentive rate pilot program. Under this program, systems are paid for the energy generated over a 15 year period, at a rate set at the time of enrollment. Systems under 100kW in size can participate in the net metering portion of the program. The actual rate paid to the customer-generator is the volumetric incentive rate minus the retail rate. Oregon's average retail rate in January 2011 was US$0.0804/kWh. The below table lists the volumetric incentive rates. Check the sources for which rate class corresponds to which counties.

Rate Class Electric Companies <10kW 10-100kW Term
1 Pacific Power and PGE US$0.390/kWh US$0.23/kWh 15 years
2 Pacific Power and PGE US$0.311/kWh US$0.181/kWh 15 years
3 Pacific Power US$0.311/kWh US$0.181/kWh 15 years
4 Pacific Power and Idaho Power US$0.285/kWh US$0.181/kWh 15 years

Systems from 100-500kW participate in competitive bidding for allocation of funding. This portion of the program will be closed when the 25MW cap is reached, or on March 31, 2015, whichever is earlier.

Sources: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

US Energy Information Administration

 

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has a Solar Alternative Energy Credit (SAEC) system. SAECs are analogous to other states' SRECs (i.e. they represent 1 MWh of PV power generation). Any system is eligible and during 2013, the market price has ranged from approximately US$40-US$120/MWh (US$0.04-US$0.12/kWh).

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

Rhode Island

Rhode Island has a FIT with the following rates:

Size Incentive Term
50-100kW US$0.2995/kWh 15 years
100-250kW US$0.2880/kWh 15 years
250-500kW US$0.2840/kWh 15 years
500kW-5MW US$0.2495/kWh 15 years

South Carolina

South Carolina has a number of power companies with various Renewable Energy Credit (REC) trading schemes and incentives for solar power. South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G), Progress Energy Carolinas (PEC) and Duke Energy (DE) offer net metering payments for PV energy fed into the grid. In addition, Palmetto Clean Energy offers a premium of US$0.10/kWh for small-scale generators of 6 kW or less.

South Dakota

South Dakota has no FIT, but a number of incentives. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Tennessee

For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-50kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

 

For larger systems (50kW-1MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. In 2013, the average price was be $0.037/kWh, with a maximum of $0.082/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

Texas

 

Austin Energy offers a number of rebates and loans along with their FIT. They accept systems up to 200kW in size and currently pay US$0.09/kWh generated.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Utah

Utah has no FIT, but it has net metering and a number of incentives. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Vermont

Green Mountain Power credits customers with net-metered PV systems up to 500kW with US$0.06/kWh and customers retain ownership of the Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) associated with the energy generated. Alternatively, the Vermont Standard Offer for Qualifying SPEED Resources pays whatever a generator can negotiate with a purchaser (with 18 utilities to choose from) with a guaranteed term of 25 years for systems up to 2.2MW in size.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

Virginia

Dominion Virginia Power customers that install PV systems can receive US$0.15/kWh under contract for 5 years. For smaller systems (0.5-50kW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has the Green Power Providers Program. US$1,000 is paid to offset the initial cost of installation and there is also a premium paid on energy produced for the first 10 years of the 20 year contract. Participants are paid the retail rate in the last 10 years and it is unclear how they can sell their energy after the contract lapses. The premium is paid on top of the retail electricity rate, however the TVA retains all rights to any tradable Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags or other associated benefits. Details are as follows:

Size Incentive Term
0.5-50kW US$0.04/kWh 10 years

 

For larger systems (50kW-20MW), the TVA has the Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program. These are long-term price contracts with varying prices dependent on the time of power delivery. This is more lucrative for PV due to most of the energy being fed in during on-peak hours. As with their Generation Partners Program, they retain the right to any Renewable Energy Credits or Green Tags that result. In 2013, the average price was $0.037/kWh, with a maximum of $0.082/kWh on hot, high-demand afternoons in July and August and a minimum of $0.029/kWh in early morning hours in Fall and Spring.

Washington

Washington has enacted a FIT which is focused on boosting local manufacturing. The incentives cannot exceed US$5,000 in one year. The tariff doubles for community solar projects that are either owned by local entities and placed on local government property or owned by utilities and funded voluntarily by ratepayers. They are as follows:

Manufactured in Washington state Size Incentive Term
Modules and inverter <75kW US$0.54/kWh Until June 30, 2020
Modules, not inverter <75kW US$0.36/kWh Until June 30, 2020
Inverter, not modules <75kW US$0.18/kWh Until June 30, 2020
Neither modules nor inverter <75kW US$0.15/kWh Until June 30, 2020

West Virginia

West Virginia has no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Wisconsin

Wisconsin has the Madison Gas & Electric (MGE) green power purchase program (Green Power Tomorrow). Under this program, the electricity produced from 1 to 10kW DC systems will be purchased by MGE at a rate of US$0.25/kWh. This rate will apply to all electricity produced by the system. As the program is limited to Green Power Tomorrow participants, customers will purchase electricity from the utility at the normal retail rate plus the green power premium (currently US$0.0125/kWh). Currently this program is fully subscribed because it reached it 1MW cap. Customers can be placed on a waiting list to apply for the net metering program.

Size Incentive Term
1-10kW DC US$0.25/kWh 10 years

River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU) also offers a special rate for PV systems up to 4kW of US$0.30/kWh, under contract for 10 years.

Source: Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

 

Wyoming

Wyoming has no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.

 

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have no FIT, but a number of incentives and net metering options. See the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE) website.